Journal Title:  Journal of Pharmacy Teaching | Vol:  12 | Issue:  2 | Year:  2005   
Print ISSN:  1044-0054 | Online ISSN:     

Factor Structure and Cross-Validation of a Professionalism Scale in Pharmacy Students

Associate Professor and Faculty Sanguan Lerkiatbundit Ph.D

pages: 25 - 49


The objectives of this study were to investigate factor structures of an attitudinal professionalism scale revised from the Schack-Hepler scale and cross-validate the findings. The students at a pharmacy school completed the scale twice, i.e., in 1998 (N = 464) and again in 1999 (N = 301). In 2004, another group of students (N = 486) at the same school also responded to the same scale. Factorial validity of the scale was assessed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that six subscales of the instrument were reliable (Cronbach alpha > 0.70). Based on 1998 data, the fit of the six-correlated factor model was better than those of the competing models. The parameter estimates suggested the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. The six-correlated factor model had the highest degree of replicability in the 2004 sample. The analysis of panel data (using 1998–1999 samples) and the multi-group analysis indicated the invariance of factor loadings over time and across groups and classes. In conclusion, the professionalism scale is best represented by the six-correlated factor model. The respondents interpreted the scale items the same way across groups, time and classes.