Nutrient Removal by Modified Activated Sludge Processes

Anoop Kapoor
Pradeep Kumar
T. Viraraghavan

DOI: 10.2190/8688-HY09-Y50R-B4K5


Stringent wastewater effluent criteria require removal of nutrients from wastewater. Biological processes are now being preferred to chemical precipitation for the removal of nutrients (especially phosphorus) from wastewater, due to a better understanding of the biological nutrient removal mechanisms and reduced operating costs. Modified activated sludge (single-sludge) processes are now being increasingly used for nutrient removal. This article reviews the basic principles and mechanisms involved in nutrient removal from wastewater. Various modified activated sludge processes are studied and compared with an emphasis on design aspects. Nutrient removal capabilities of some treatment plants using various modified activated sludge processes are examined.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.