Factors Associated With Human Papillomavirus Infection in Women Encountered in Community-Based Offices
Barbara D. Reed, MD, MSPH;
Philip Zazove, MD;
Lucie Gregoire, PhD;
Daniel W. Gorenflo, PhD;
Wayne D. Lancaster, PhD;
Mack T. Ruffin IV, MD, MPH
Arch Fam Med. 1993;2(12):1239-1248.
To assess risk factors for cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women presenting to community-based offices because of vaginal symptoms or for preventive screening.
Cross-sectional analysis of history, physical examination, and microbiological infection variables.
Two community-based family practice offices in southeastern Michigan.
Two hundred seventy-three women, 18 to 50 years of age, presenting to the study sites because of vaginal symptoms or for a pelvic examination for preventive screening.
Main Outcome Measure
Human papillomavirus infection of the uterine cervix as determined by polymerase chain reaction testing.
Human papillomavirus infection was detected in 21.2% of the women (24.9% and 13.1% of women with and without vaginal symptoms, respectively);34% of these infections were HPV types 16 or 18. Fifty-four percent of the women with HPV infection who underwent colposcopy had condyloma or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia verified on biopsy. Independent associations were found between HPV infection and the following female risk factors: the presence of vaginal itching, odor, or swelling; knowing the current sexual partner less than 24 months; age less than 40 years; household income of $14 000 or less; and ever having had six or more sexual partners.
In addition to three previously described risk factors for genital HPV infection, two previously un-recognized risk factors were identified in this lower-risk population. These risk factors included the presence of vaginal symptoms of itching, odor, or swelling and having known the current sexual partner less than 24 months. Nevertheless, using risk factors alone, two thirds of the women infected with HPV in this population were not identified as being at high risk of infection. No subset of sexually active women was identified who were at no risk of HPV infection.
From the Department of Family Practice, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (Drs Reed, Zazove, Gorenflo, and Ruffin), and the Departments of Pathology (Dr Gregoire) and Molecular Biology and Genetics (Dr Lancaster), Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.
THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES
Excess Incidence of Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer among US Black Men: Role of Social Class and Other Risk Factors
Morris Brown et al.
Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:114-122.
| FULL TEXT
Low False-Negative Rate of PCR Analysis for Detecting Human Papillomavirus-Related Cervical Lesions
Zazove et al.
J. Clin. Microbiol. 1998;36:2708-2713.
| FULL TEXT
Human Papillomavirus Infection
Reed and Zazove
Arch Fam Med 1994;3:855-856.
Human Papillomavirus Infection-Reply
Arch Fam Med 1994;3:856-856.
Human Papillomavirus in a Low-Risk Population
Journal Watch Dermatology 1994;1994:12-12.
HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN A LOW-RISK POPULATION
JWatch General 1994;1994:5-5.
Human Papillomavirus: To Screen or Not to Screen
Arch Fam Med 1993;2:1227-1228.
Presence of Human Papillomavirus Infection of the Uterine Cervix as Determined by Different Detection Methods in a Low-Risk Community-Based Population
Zazove et al.
Arch Fam Med 1993;2:1250-1258.